• Oksana Samchynska National Technical University of Ukraine “Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute”
Keywords: Center for Counteracting Disinformation, legal support, unreliable information, misinformation, national security and interests in the information sphere.


The purpose of the study is to clarify the essence of disinformation as a threat to the rights and legitimate interests of a person, society, and the state, to identify its main features, and to formulate a clear definition of this concept. Methods. To achieve this goal, the following methods were used: analysis, synthesis, comparative law, abstraction, and generalization. Results. Different approaches to the definition of “disinformation” are considered. The main features of this phenomenon are singled out and generalized. The difference between the terms “disinformation”, “unreliable information” and “misinformation” is established. It is determined that the obligatory signs of disinformation are: intent to create, modify, and/or disseminate inaccurate information, intent to mislead, pre-determined purpose, and violation or the possibility of violation of legal rights and interests of a person or state as a result of such activities. The own approach to the understanding of disinformation in a narrow and wide sense is formulated. It is proposed to enshrine at the legal level the definition of this concept as a purposeful process of creating, modifying, and disseminating information, both inaccurate and reliable, to mislead individuals (groups of persons) to achieve political, economic, or ideological goals, which violate or human and civil rights and/or society and the state may be violated, and take it as a basis for the activities of the Center for Counteracting Disinformation and other public authorities in the performance of tasks related to counteracting and preventing the negative consequences of disinformation. Conclusions. In the digital age, disinformation has reached a “new level” and has certainly become one of the main challenges for both individual, states and the entire international community. Therefore, the development of legal mechanisms to combat this phenomenon has become more urgent than ever. In Ukraine, there is an understanding of the danger of this phenomenon, as evidenced by the definition of disinformation as one of the challenges and threats to national interests at the level of strategic regulations and the creation of a special working body of the National Security and Defense Council of Ukraine – Disinformation Center. At the same time, there is no definition of “disinformation” in national legislation. The key to the effective implementation of information policy to prevent and counteract the negative consequences of disinformation, protection of national security and interests in the information sphere, and the activities of the Center for Countering Disinformation is to consolidate the concept of “disinformation” at the regulatory level.


1. Khan, I. (2021). Disinformation and Freedom of Opinion and Expression: Report of the Special Rapporteur on the Promotion and Protection of the Right to Freedom of Opinion and Expression. Retrieved from: https://eos.cartercenter.org/uploads/document_file/path/985/Report_ of_the_Special_Rapporteur_on_Disinformation_and_Freedom_of_Opinion_and_Expression_E. pdf [in English]
2. Dubov, D. V., Koretska, I. O., Barovska, A. V., Hnatiuk, S. L., Ozhevan, M. A., Isakova, T. O. ... Suslov, A. I. (2020). Feiky yak instrument vplyvu na vybory: Analitychna dopovid [Fakes as a tool for influencing elections: An analytical report]. Kyiv : Natsionalnyi instytut stratehichnykh doslidzhen. Retrieved from: https://niss.gov.ua/sites/default/files/2020-01/ dopovid-dubov-1.pdf [in Ukrainian]
3. Prezydent Ukrainy (2021). Pro rishennia Rady natsionalnoi bezpeky i oborony Ukrainy vid 30 lypnia 2021 roku “Pro Stratehiiu zovnishnopolitychnoi diialnosti Ukrainy” [On the decision of the National Security and Defense Council of Ukraine of July 30, 2021 “On the Strategy of Foreign Policy of Ukraine”], 448/2021, August 26. Retrieved from: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/ laws/show/448/2021#Text [in Ukrainian]
4. Prezydent Ukrainy (2021). Pro rishennia Rady natsionalnoi bezpeky i oborony Ukrainy vid 14 travnia 2021 roku “Pro Stratehiiu kiberbezpeky Ukrainy” [On the decision of the National Security and Defense Council of Ukraine of May 14, 2021 “On the Cyber Security Strategy of Ukraine”], 447/2021, August 26. Retrieved from: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/ show/447/2021#Text [in Ukrainian]
5. Prezydent Ukrainy (2021). Pro rishennia Rady natsionalnoi bezpeky i oborony Ukrainy vid 15 zhovtnia 2021 roku “Pro Stratehiiu informatsiinoi bezpeky” [On the decision of the National Security and Defense Council of Ukraine of October 15, 2021 “On the Information Security Strategy”], 685/2021, December 28. Retrieved from: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/ show/685/2021#Text [in Ukrainian]
6. Definition of disinformation from the Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary & Thesaurus. Retrieved: April 11, 2022, from https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/ disinformation [in English]
7. Oxford living dictionaries. Definition of disinformation in English. Retrieved: April 11, 2022, from https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/disinformation [in English]
8. Dezinformatsionnie svedeniya [Disinformation]. Kontrrazvedivatelnii slovar. M. : Nauchno izdatelskii otdel Visshei shkoli KGB. 1972. Retrieved from: http://www.pseudology. org/Abel/KRSlovar2.pdf [in Russian]
9. Kapeliushnyi, V. P. (2007). Dezinformatsiia [Disinformation]. Dziuba, I. M., Zhukovskyi, A. I., Zhelezniak, M. H. ta in. (Red.), Entsyklopediia Suchasnoi Ukrainy. Instytut entsyklopedychnykh doslidzhen NAN Ukrainy. Retrieved from: https://esu.com.ua/search_articles. php?id=2127310 [in Ukrainian]
10. Fetzer, J. H. (2004). Information: Does it have to be true? Minds and Machines, 14 (2), 223–229. Retrieved from: file:///C:/Users/Ксюша/Downloads/Information_Does_it_Have_To_ Be_True.pdf [in English]
11. Shlapachenko, V. M. (2013). Dezinformatsiia yak sposib informatsiino-psykholohichnoho vplyvu [Disinformation as a way of information and psychological influence]. Informatsiina bezpeka liudyny, suspilstva, derzhavy, № 2, 78–86. Retrieved from: http://nbuv.gov.ua/UJRN/ iblsd_2013_2_15 [in Ukrainian]
12. Kitsa, M. Ya. (2017). Osoblyvosti ta metody vyiavlennia feikovoi informatsii v ukrainskykh ZMI [Features and methods of detecting fake information in the Ukrainian media]. Visnyk Natsionalnoho universytetu “Lvivska politekhnika”, № 1, 30–35. Retrieved from: https://science.lpnu.ua/sites/default/files/journal-paper/2019/apr/16109/kitsa.pdf [in Ukrainian]
13. Saienko, O. H. (2015). Mekhanizm informatsiino-psykholohichnoho vplyvu v umovakh hibrydnoi viiny [Mechanism of information and psychological influence in a hybrid war]. Visnyk Natsionalnoi akademii Derzhavnoi prykordonnoi sluzhby Ukrainy. Seriia: Psykholohiia, № 1. Retrieved from: https://lib.nadpsu.edu.ua/eldocs/BooksShow4/Vnadpn_2015_1_11.pdf [in Ukrainian]
14. Tudjman, M., & Mikelic, N. (2003). Information science: Science about information, misinformation and disinformation. Proceedings of Informing Science+Information Technology Education, № 3, 1513–1527. Retrieved from: http://proceedings.informingscience.org/ IS2003Proceedings/docs/204Tudjm.pdf [in English]
15. Wardle, C. (2017). Fake news. It’s complicated. First Draft, № 16, 1–11. Retrieved from: https://medium.com/1st-draft/fakenews-its-complicated-d0f773766c79 [in English]
16. Stahl, B. C. (2006). On the difference or equality of information, misinformation, and disinformation: A critical research perspective. Informing Science, № 9, 83–96. DOI: https://doi.org/10.28945/473 [in English]
17. United Nations (Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights). (2017). Joint Declaration on Freedom of Expression and Fake News, Disinformation and Propaganda. Retrieved from: https://www.osce.org/files/f/documents/6/8/302796.pdf [in English]
18. European Commission. (2018). EU Code of Practice against disinformation. Retrieved from: https://ec.europa.eu/newsroom/dae/document.cfm?doc_id=54454 [in English]
19. Bevz, S. I., Samchynska, O. A. (2021). Zastosuvannia st. 173-1 Kodeksu Ukrainy pro administratyvni pravoporushennia [Application of st. 173-1 of the Code of Ukraine on Administrative Offenses]. Naukovyi visnyk Dnipropetrovskoho derzhavnoho universytetu vnutrishnikh sprav, Spetsialnyi vypusk № 2 (115), 50–60. DOI: 10.31733/2078-3566-2021-6-50-60 [in Ukrainian]
How to Cite
Samchynska, O. (2022). DISINFORMATION: CONCEPT AND ESSENCE. Administrative Law and Process, (3(38), 32-45. https://doi.org/10.17721/2227-796X.2022.3.03
Special administrative law