WAIVER OF HUMAN RIGHTS: A RIGHT OR A CHALLENGE?
The author discusses the new tendencies of waiving human rights. In the article they are qualified as a new emerging institute of Human Rights Law. The definition of human rights waiver is discussed, as well as the necessity to give a legal regulation to it. The author presents the existing definitions of human rights waiver, but does not share any of them, particularly most of them define human rights waiver as not utilization of human rights, but the author calls this definition as a passive application of human rights, whilst waiver of human rights has its own content which is discussed in the article in details. Human rights waiver is discussed in the light of the co-relation of the right to autonomy and the principle of paternalism. The author presents some case law on waiver of human rights, which is very rare. Specifically, the author presents the case law of the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Armenia and the case law of the European Court of Human Rights. The legal positions of the mentioned bodies can serve as good criteria in dealing with human rights waiver. Particularly, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Armenia held a decision dedicated to this issue and qualified waiver of human rights as an exception from the classical perception of human rights ideology. The author agrees with idea reflected in decision of the Constitutional Court concerning the correlation of human rights waiver and right to autonomy, according to which right to autonomy cannot be absolute and that absolute waiver of human rights can, in its turn, violate the human rights. In this context the author highlights the necessity of defining the limits of human rights waiver offering two important directions for discussion of this question; the scope of the rights which can and cannot be waived, the framework and criteria of a waiver of human rights.
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